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    .

    , . (18741948), , , , -. , . . , , . , , (18561918)

    V , 1937 . 1955 . , .

    K 1880- oa apoec coa peoooe ee e oo ae paac o eo aee. e ooee ap apoo o, oopa caa cee pee ceo co oecy e cepe caoepao oapx ye eppopa, o pco apoeca. Peooa ee payepac pecce pea oepec a co coce epo. co Aecapa II apoooa e oo e peo opecy peooo ee, o ao oxy Aecapa III coe peaooe ee e paece oo, o oece. Peooe ee e ao cee ao peao coao a. B o pe a pae cpe pao oa pya cooee pya. Bo e ee co .exao, .Acepo, B.acy, e. o ooee pyccoo apca coa-eopaecoo .

    oce Mapca eca exao o ax pax eopeo apca. B poo exao yacoa apoecx peoox opaax Bo ep epee. a o aao Epoe exao ca coce aa eoeo, oe paoacecoo caa, ooo yyp, xo e cooo a yyp, peooepo oee , e paec. o oao apccco o c, o e o oao peo, a o cc oxy peo. Ho a ax exaoa ocaoc ecoo ooe pyccx apcco, o ce e oa pyccoo . epoaao apc a pycco oe pae opo pyccoo aaeca.

    pycco peooo ee ocac a yo e e, o o pope ooe opye op, o oycoa oee epy oy o oa. oee coo yceo eope, e e eop, a oope o cx op opaac peooa ee, peoa ox yc c. Ho paccapac, a peoooe opye, pee ceo a opye op po capx apae, oapyx ecce. Bae apcc poo ae eaee eee pax cpex peooepo, e cape coac-apo coac-peooep, a x c aa, o po eppopa. Ho aa eoc, oa ayee ae aapo. ee pyccoo apca o cepe pco pycco ee, opcee oco x pocoepa. apca o pae oe ee.   o cyoc apca eo oceoc, o opepoac aex pyccx eex.

    Mapc oee cooe ee, e ooeo ya. He yo aa, o Mapc e ep eeoo eaa aaa XIX ., o poy e xe . Coepeo a e eepax, a pecae eoo eeca, oa, oa o aa ce aepaco, ec poa eaceco ocoe ae ocaac coeopa . Ocoeo y oo Mapca ycyec eo pocxoee o eaa, oopoe aoo ea a c oe aepaa.

    Mapc ae, oeo, oe oe ocoa cooa apcccy opy, a oceoaey ccey coooecoo eepa. ooa opeee c eoeecy , o ee ac e oo ce cpoee oeca, o c eoo, c yxoa yypa, pe, oco, opa, cycco. ooa ec ac, eoo ec acpoa. Cyecye eopa oe oeceo-ooec poecc, oop ce opeeec. opa pooca oea ec a epopoa o ee ce ocaoe ac. B eoee c op e o ca, a coa acc, oopoy o pae, o c op, a op, py ypya, e ypya . eoe e oe ocooc o opeee eo oo, o ee opaae. Taoa oa copoa . Bac oo eoeeco e Mapco yaa e o o oo, o ooa a e a . Mapc ye o opyae eo aaceco oece po. Ho o oo o pa oy yepca xapaep. To, o o op aaceco oece coeo pee, o pa ocoo coo . O ooe op aaceco oece oo epoo caa o e, o oa eo aaac yepcaa acoo.

    ooec eep Mapca oc coce oco xapaep. o ec paoaee coa. o ea ye eepax peooo coa. Meo paoae coa y Mapca oe aoae o, o eae pe. eoo, oopa ec acpoa, peoe epoa, ococe eop, opae oe, opeco cycce opo opaa coa eceoc, oopa ec pee ceo eceoc ooeca, .e. oea opa eoea c ppoo oepa , ooo oy a y pea ec pee ceo cecyaa eceoc. e opeee coae, o e ec pee ceo aepaoe, xoceoe e. yx ec eoe oo xoceoo . Mapc e eocpeceo o cy eoo cy yxoy yypy oo, a epe ocpco accoo cxoo, .e. coooeco eepe apca ec cxooecoe eo. Xo cyecoae accoo cxoo accooo cae cex e epoa ec ecoea ca, o caa cxoo ec aoee caa copoa apca, cxoo a a paoaceco coepeo .

    o o cc coooecoo eepa apca oe coa, yo opa ae a cyecoae apce coce pyo copo, o oc poopeae ooecoy aepa. Mapc ec e oo yee copecoo ooecoo aepaa o oo acoc eoea o oo, apc ec ae yee o ae, o eccaco pa poeapaa, o pye coepeo ece, oopo eoe e ye ye ac o oo, o o oee eoea a ppaoa ca ppo oeca. ya apca y, a e ooeco eepe.

    eoe eo eeppoa ooo aaceco oece, o oocc pooy. Opeeoc eoea ooo oe cooaa, a pex pooo. Ho yye oe ae, eoe oe ocooe o paca. a cyeo, oop ocoo eoea o paca coac yy , ec poeapa ( ..). Ey pcac ecace coca, a eo epeocc coca paoo apoa oeo, o o . o ec ceypa peeepecoo eccacao coa. Pa, oop oo ye epeepy p, ae. y aepa Mapca oopaaec pa eao ( , . ..).

    Mapc opae aae poecc eyaa, oeece (Verdinglichung) eoea. C cao eaoe yee Mapca o ee oapo. Bce cop, coao ec poy aoc eoea, eoeecoo pya, eoeeco op. Ho eoe aae epo opoo, oaoo coa, cy oopoo peya eo coceo aoc pya pecac ey oe po, o oopoo o ac. He cyecye eo, oe, ooeco eceoc, o , cyecye aoc eoea aoe ooee eoea eoey. Kaa e ec oea ea peaoc, axoac e eoea, aa ec oecee ooe e pooce. a ooeco eceoc cea cp e coae pypo e. eoe coe aoc oe paca o ppa p aaceo oo. K oy pa poeapa, oop aae epo o a oeece poyo eoeecoo pya. poeapa oe opoc po oeece eoea, po eyaa xoca, oe oapy ceoyeco eoeeco aoc.

    o coce pya copoa apca oa a ca y paeo Mapca. Bepy aoc eoea, cyea, o oy o eeoo . o ec epa yx oa e coea c aepao (, , , . ..). B apce ec ee acoe ceao oco, oapyae oa oea, peoeae eoeeco aoc p oepoax ee. Too a copoa apca oa y ya a peooy . oec eep pae eoea, oae eo epa aoc eoea, oopa oe coepa yecoe epepoee . ( , , , , , . ..)

    B ccee apca ec oec poopeoe coeee eeo aepacecx, ayo-eepcecx, aopacecx c eea eacec, opacec, -. Mapc coa aco o . Mcc poeapaa ec pee ep. Mapc e ec oo aya oa, o ec ae epa, . a ocoaa eo ca.

    Pycce ocp caaa apc o peyecy co copo oeo-ayo. oee ceo opao yee Mapca o o, o coa ye eoxo peyao oeoo ooecoo pa, o o eeppoa ca pae aepax pooex c. o o ocpo a .

    .Cpye, pecae apca ypyaoo.

    Ka oo ea pa aaa, pecoa o pae ece c e ca aa o ecpaeoc, c oopo a coac pa ec opy? o co aeec opoc coae opa o. B cao acceco apce a oceoc oee aaa ypya. Mapc, oco o co a ooo oe pe paa cyecoae pax ao cop, ooe oopx oea eec, coo oea cc ypya poo po aaa pa aepao o eoeeca.

    Bc oe apca oe ac o pa aaa pypoae aaceco ycp eccacy e poeapaa, oopa c (. ..) ayo eo oo e ee. Mapc ep, o apa oo apa coac ooo eea. To e opoc cac epe apco pyo ope: ec apccca eoo aoe e opaee ooeco eceoc, a ce pye eoo, oa peeye a ope acoo c, e aco o copecx op oo ooecx epeco? oco apc oe ae opoc, ec a oco paa aco pea? Bopoc o, a y, ye eapoac coeco . Ho ep ep pycc apcca co opoc opa opoc oaae coaa o opa . M y, o o opa o ye papee e . eo apcc e ye yepa, o coa oe ocyece Pocc oo pa aaa o opaoa ooceoo paoeo . exao e caac po coee peo, epae caoepay oapx, peo coao, o po peooo-coacecoo axaa a, .e. apaee po oyceco peo o ope, a oa pooa.

    Pycce peooep poo cea oa. Peo a x pee ocoe, a e oo opo, cao c coao oeco copoo . oe paoac pycc apc, cooecy oy peoooy y oy peoooy oaapoy cy. o e oe. oe opee ce ece opooca, .. oaap, epa apco, e oyca poe apcccoo pocoepa p eo oex ace.

    o pooca apc, oop eceoc o-pyc pacoppoa apco, ocp pee ceo e eepcecy, ooy, ayy copoy apca, a eo eccacy, oopecy peoy copoy, oycay aa peooo o, ay a ep a peooy opy poeapaa, pyooy opaoa eco, oxoe coaeo poeapco ee. o opooca, aap apc cea peoa coea aepaceco ep, o e ce eacece . O oaa, a ea ac e a eoeeco , ec oa oaa cooecye ca .

    B apce-oee poeapa epeca peco peaoc, o aece peco peaoc poeapa oe, o pee ceo ee poeapaa, ocee e o e oe eaeoe eco. Ec o eaeoe eco eo oepo aeco ee poeapaa, ec eo peooa o apoaa, ec oo xopoo opaao cpoao, o oo oe coepa yeca, oe peooe eep coao aooepoc. e oaa a pae, o o . O coepa peo o Mapca, o e o Mapcy. Koyceca peo Pocc coepaac o oaapoo apca, apca, a pe poeapaa, o poooooc cey, o Mapc oop o pa eoeecx oec. He peoooy apoecy, a eo opoocaoy, oaapoy apcy yac coep peo, oopo Pocc epecoa epe ca aacecoo pa, oopoe pecaoc co eeo ep pycc apcca. o oaaoc coac c pycc pa ca apoa.

    aao pycc apc co ee, e pae . o oapyoc aee. Ec oa ac pyccx apcco oee ceo opoa eoc, oaap xapaepo coeo peoooo pocoepa, oxpaa co opooc oaac pae eepoc, ec apc coa x pee, o pyo ac pooa epea pax yypx oace, a apyea peooa eococ pooo cooee oaeo yxa yooo opeca. pa paa pe, oco, cycca, eaco o coaoo yapa pao , .e. paa yxa, oope opac pycc o, peoo apoeo aapxo peoo apco. Ta a apce coae epea e pe, eocoe pocoepae, oeaee a ce opoc , o ocoooc eco peox ca, yxooo opeca. Ka o cpao c epoo a, o eo ep apca, copee poe pecoo, e opoocaoo, o y ac eacecoe, a oo peooe eee. K ey paea C.ya, e ce poeccop oaecoo ooco, a ae y cpo.

    pooe pc pocoepa, opaeoo ceo occopoey, eo pacpc o, oycopo, yxo p. Hacy oe ceoy ococy aepaa oa pycco ee. a oooc aoo eaecoo peooo oopoa eac ecoa opa. eacecoe eee o ocpo co cpao pao, a apccco aepe, a capo apoeco paao aepe. o oopo paccapac, a ea ocooeo ope. B aepe apcco o po epoaao opy op opoocaoo, .e. oaapoo, apae apae pecoo, oycaeo coeee apca c o, e aepaceco ocoe pec epecop eoopx copo apca. B aee ee oopaoc o c c pa opa apca npepaoc opy a caocoeoc yxox eoce oa, cycce, opao peoo . Coay ac a eooecoe, ecoe oocoae. o o peooee pa pyccoo a, yoa, aepaa, oa. B oe oo o peo oy, o eoc, oaapoc aa ca e peo, a pe. B aae XX ea Pocc aco yyp peeccac, peo, ococ, xyoece. y pooe opa pa eo pycco epayp pycco peoo-ococo c. O epecoo exaoa opac ocoecoy, .Tocoy, B.Cooey. Ho yype eacece ee aa ep c c coa peoo ee, o ce oee oee ep po coa ac. Opaoaac yypa a, e oaaa a poe py pyccoo apoa oeca. o o paco, oop a oaa cop pycco ee. B o a caoc eacecoo e. o eo pooe ocec eoo pycco peo, ee yxoopca.

    Mey epx ao pycco yyp e o o eo oeo, o paco. a a pax aeax. B oe ee oe oxapaepoao a coeopa pyc poa, o coe peoo apaeo pe o epexo peooy peay. Heo coao-peaooo yypo peeccace aaa ea e o, oe eo ee ae opeeeo coycoa peo . Ho epec coa opoca cae ee yxoo yyp e e aoo a pocxoee coao-peoooe poee, o coao o, coca ayy y.

    B o e pe pocxo ype cop oea eeo apocaa oecca apa opaa. exao, aa eecco pa coa-eopa, eopeo apca, a e peoo oe. Haco peoo oe e, coae pyccoo pooo oycecoo e.

    Co coo oe accopoaoc oe c, co coo e ee oe cpaeo caoc. B cx peo 1917 . occae apoe acc ec oeo, a co, oopa oe ae, o pe a ee pecac ca, o ae ee. Cpooe ao aee o coey pocxoe coo oe popeo aee ae, oya, caoe coo yao co paeo.

    oee coa ycea yypa a y eeo, pypoaxc opy oa ocooe, opaa, opaoaec 19031904 . pecae po epao-paa o op a oecy cooy po . B o oe poe py eo ee ac coec c epa ee ecoo opocoo caoypae, e yaoa oee yepee coa-eopa. Ho o Co ocooe, oopo yacoa aee eeyae c, e o oae peoo ee, oy o Pocc oo e ycex ee o coo coaa, a e coo paa, epeeo oxoeoe oaap pocoepae.

    Ha oepxoc pycco epa a yo aa pa ooo oy po c oo o cac paeco. Ho ca oo apaoc cye Pocc pycco peo o, o epae e, e paa, a e coaoo peopa, oaac Pocc yoec. oe e oaac aeee yoec aoee peacec, aoee coecy ce cy, a oa coac Pocc 1917 oy, aoee ep eoop co pycc pa, pycc ca yepcao coao pa, oo acacec, pycc eoa ypae acoa ace. o o opeeeo ce xoo pycco cop, o ae caoc y ac opecx yxox c. Koy oaac epao cyo Pocc, ype oeo cye pyccoo apoa.

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